Amar Tu
.Posted in Stroke
A stroke occurs when an artery to the brain becomes blocked or ruptured, which then leads to the death of a certain area of brain tissue and its blood supply causing certain symptoms. Stroke can be classified into two types. The first type is referred to as Ischemia or ischaemia, which is the result of blockage of an artery and the second type is referred to as hemorrhagic, which is caused due to rupture of an artery. The signs and symptoms can occur suddenly which include muscle weakness, paralysis, severe headaches, loss of balance and co-ordination and problem with vision. Recovery of the patient depends on the amount and the location of damage, person's age and any other disorders that the person is already suffering from. Improvement from stroke symptoms commonly continues for six months after a stroke. The condition in adults, who have had an ischemic stroke, becomes permanent if it is not treated for at least 12 months. But children continue to improve gradually month by month.For people who already have other serious disorders (such as dementia), recovery is slower and in some cases, they don’t show any improvement at all. Also, people who have had a stroke, the quality of life is predicted to remain poor despite treatment. For such people, care focuses on the control of pain, comfort measures, and provision of fluids and nourishment.You can lower your odds of having a stroke by staying active and working out every day. Take a brisk walk of 30 minutes or do muscle strengthening exercises like push-ups.
Amar Tu
.Posted in Vaping Devices (Electronic Cigarettes)
What are vaping devices? Vaping devices, also known as e-cigarettes, e-vaporizers, or electronic nicotine delivery systems, are battery-operated devices that people use to inhale an aerosol, which typically contains nicotine (though not always), flavorings, and other chemicals. They can resemble traditional tobacco cigarettes (cig-a-likes), cigars, or pipes, or even everyday items like pens or USB memory sticks. Other devices, such as those with fillable tanks, may look different. Regardless of their design and appearance, these devices generally operate in a similar manner and are made of similar components. More than 460 different e-cigarette brands are currently on the market. Some common nicknames for e-cigarettes are: e-cigs e-hookahs hookah pens vapes vape pens mods (customizable, more powerful vaporizers) How do vaping devices work? Most e-cigarettes consist of four different components, including: a cartridge or reservoir or pod, which holds a liquid solution (e-liquid or e-juice) containing varying amounts of nicotine, flavorings, and other chemicals a heating element (atomizer) a power source (usually a battery) a mouthpiece that the person uses to inhale In many e-cigarettes, puffing activates the battery-powered heating device, which vaporizes the liquid in the cartridge. The person then inhales the resulting aerosol or vapor (called vaping). How does vaping affect the brain? The nicotine in e-liquids is readily absorbed from the lungs into the bloodstream when a person vapes an e-cigarette. Upon entering the blood, nicotine stimulates the adrenal glands to release the hormone epinephrine (adrenaline). Epinephrine stimulates the central nervous system and increases blood pressure, breathing, and heart rate. As with most addictive substances, nicotine activates the brain’s reward circuits and also increases levels of a chemical messenger in the brain called dopamine, which reinforces rewarding behaviors. Pleasure caused by nicotine’s interaction with the reward circuit motivates some people to use nicotine again and again, despite risks to their health and well-being. What are the health effects of vaping? Is it safer than smoking tobacco cigarettes? Research so far suggests that vaping devices might be less harmful than combustible cigarettes when people who regularly smoke switch to them as a complete replacement. But nicotine in any form is a highly addictive drug. Research suggests it can even prime the brain’s reward system, putting vapers at risk for addiction to other drugs. Also, e-cigarette use exposes the lungs to a variety of chemicals, including those added to e-liquids, and other chemicals produced during the heating/vaporizing process A study of some e-cigarette products found the vapor contains known carcinogens and toxic chemicals, as well as potentially toxic metal nanoparticles from the device itself. The study showed that the e-liquids of certain cig-a-like brands contain high levels of nickel and chromium, which may come from the nichrome heating coils of the vaporizing device. Cig-a-likes may also contain low levels of cadmium, a toxic metal also found in cigarette smoke that can cause breathing problems and disease.11 More research is needed on the health consequences of repeated exposure to these chemicals. There are also reports of lung illnesses and deaths related to inhalation of certain vaping oils into the lungs, which have no way to filter out toxic ingredients.   Can vaping help a person quit smoking? Some people believe e-cigarettes may help lower nicotine cravings in those who are trying to quit smoking. However, e-cigarettes are not an FDA-approved quit aid, and there is no conclusive scientific evidence on the effectiveness of vaping for long-term smoking cessation. It should be noted that there are seven FDA-approved quit aids that are proven safe and can be effective when used as directed. Vaping nicotine has not been thoroughly evaluated in scientific studies. For now, not enough data exists on the safety of e-cigarettes, how the health effects compare to traditional cigarettes, and if they are helpful for people trying to quit smoking.
Amar Tu
.Posted in Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder, which is characterised by abnormal social behaviour, delusions, cognitive challenges and hallucinations. A person affected by Schizophrenia also suffers from paranoia, nervousness and may hear voices that are actually not there. People suffering from Schizophrenia often have additional mental disorders like depression, anxiety disorders and substance use disorders.The factors that are responsible for this mental illness are environmental and genetic factors. Some environmental factors may include certain infections and lack of nutrition during pregnancy. Genetic factors include a variety of rare and some common genetic variants. Experts also say that Schizophrenia is also a result of chemical imbalances in the brain. Dopamine, a neurotransmitter is involved in the onset of Schizophrenia. Imbalance of some other neurotransmitters such as serotonin can also lead to Schizophrenia.Depending on the individual, the symptoms of Schizophrenia may vary. The signs and symptoms are classified into four categories:· Positive symptoms· Negative symptoms· Cognitive symptoms· Emotional symptomsPositive symptoms are also referred to as psychotic symptoms. They include hallucinations, thought disorders and delusions. Negative symptoms include the absence of facial expressions and lack of drive to do things. The third type of symptom is cognitive symptoms. Cognitive symptoms affect person’s thinking ability, for example, poor concentration while working or studying. Emotional symptoms are usually negative symptoms - it may include blunted emotions.Schizophrenia is diagnosed by observing actions of the patient. A few tests may include blood test, evaluating person’s mental state by asking some questions, assessing suicidal traits, moods, hallucinations, violent tendencies. The doctor also observes patient’s appearance and attitude.